Friday, January 22, 2016

England's Temperature in 2015

Nine days in 2015 were the hottest for that day of the year since 1772. This compares to three in 2014, though 2014 had a hotter average temperature and was the hottest year on record in the UK.

England has a collected data on daily temperature from 1772 in the Hadley Centre Central England Temperature (HadCET) dataset.

I downloaded this Hadley Centre dataset. And I followed this tutorial. Based on an original graphic by Tufte.

Here the black line is the average temerature for each day last year. The dark line in the middle is the average average temperature (95% confidence). the staw coloured bigger lines represent the highest and lowest average daily temperature ever recorded on that day since 1772. the red dots are the days in 2015 that were hotter than any other day at that time of year since 1772.

Looking at the black line that represents last years temperatures it was the Winter and Autumn that were far above average. Instead of a scorching hot summer most of the record hot days were in November and December. 2014 had the same pattern of a hot Winter. No day in 2015 was the coldest for that date in the recorded time.

Sunday, January 17, 2016

In 2100 there will be a kilometer tall building

I was in the Burj Khalifa last week. It is very big. But when will some bigger building be built? I want to look at the building height trend to see what the trend line says. Talking the wikipedia page on the Tallest Building. There are two eras shown. The religious era (1200-1901) and the Skyscraper era. I put the data in a csv here.

The Correlation here is cor(Year,Height) [1] 0.39831 which isn't much. Basically Cathedral's burned down and were replaced by a similar sized world's tallest building from 1200 until 1900.

Looking just at the Skyscraper era 1884 on. cor(Year,Height) [1] 0.9340458 which really looks like height increases by follow time. Running this as a linear regression the Kilometer tall bulding is not expected until the end of the century

linearModelVar <- lm(Height ~ Year, newdata)


646.6246 The Burj Khalifa was much taller than any building was expected to be in 2010


1002.799 finally a kilometer tall building in 2099


1604.903 a Mile high tower 2241 far into the future?

Saturday, January 16, 2016

Is Netflix making us smarter?

Vox has an article that mentions the artistic benefits of on demand TV viewing
The first factor was the rise of the DVR, which has made it cheaper and easier than ever before for people to record their favorite shows and watch them at their leisure. This has been great for television artistically, since it means creators can now more readily assume that every single episode of their show will be consumed in sequence.

Stephen Johnson's book "Everything Bad Is Good For You" analyses the complexity of TV programs from the 1970s and today and shows how much more complex modern ones are. Compare Columbo with one murderer shown at the start and it takes 70 minutes for them to be found out. Whereas a more modern CSI is 43 min of multiple plots with loads of characters.

The Vox piece points out that episodic series like CSI with few series long story arcs now seem outdated. Viewers are expected to keep information about longer plots now. Meaning there are more details about the characters and their relationships viewers need to track. Series you can play back at any time may be cognitively as well as artistically beneficial.

Tuesday, December 01, 2015

Tiny Bits of Land People Fight Over #1 Rockall

People will fight over any bit of land. "Rockall is about 25 metres (80 ft) wide and 31 metres (100 ft) long at its base[24] and rises sheer to a height of 17.15 m (56.27 ft)" from wikipedia.

A probably fake photo from 1974 of HMS Tartar's trip there. 'A sentry-box was constructed on Hall's Ledge, with two marines in full ceremonial uniform posted alongside, and the Union Flag was hoisted above.'

Every now and again Britain lands some people on this lump and takes a photo to prove it is theres. 'Former SAS member and survival expert Tom McClean lived on the island from 26 May 1985 to 4 July 1985 to affirm the UK's claim to the island'. Waves roll over the island so he had to hide in a bolted down giant coffin for the duration.

They do this partly because owning the Falklands isn't grim enough for them. And partly for all the oil and gas and such that might be between Rockall and Ireland.

Friday, November 20, 2015

Bombing Back to the Stone Age

There is a common meme that is easy to find with a twitter search

If you read Jared Diamond or Stephen Pinker they talk about the really high levels of violence in the stone age.
Or to describe it with statistics

"By many estimates, 10 to 20 percent of all Stone Age humans died at the hands of other people.
This puts the past 100 years in perspective. Since 1914, we have endured world wars, genocides and government-sponsored famines, not to mention civil strife, riots and murders. Altogether, we have killed a staggering 100 million to 200 million of our own kind. But over the century, about 10 billion lives were lived — which means that just 1 to 2 percent of the world’s population died violently. Those lucky enough to be born in the 20th century were on average 10 times less likely to come to a grisly end than those born in the Stone Age. And since 2000, the United Nations tells us, the risk of violent death has fallen even further, to 0.7 percent."

To reduce violence don't send people back to the stone age.

Tuesday, November 17, 2015

How Good Will the Upcoming Stephen King Adaptations be?

This is the third and final post in a series on Stephen King adaptations. (The first is Are Stephen King films better than the books?, and the second Do Stephen King's Better Books Make Better Films?)
According to IMDB the Stephen King Novels below are currently being adapted
Titlegood doubled
The Talisman8.2
Rose Madder7.22
Lisey's Story7.22
Mr. Mercedes7.74
Gerald's Game6.86
The Dark Tower8
Three of these books have exactly the same rating on Goodreads. The correlation between the ratings and his books and his films previously discussed I will use to predict future movies ratings. The analysis gives a 95% confidence prediction intervals of
Titleestimatelower boundupper bound
The Talisman7.56.48.6
Rose Madder5.954.87.0
Lisey's Story5.954.87.0
Mr. Mercedes6.795.78.8
Gerald's Game5.374.26.4
The Dark Tower7.26.18.2
The upcoming films with their predicted IMDB ratings are in red in the graph below. Three are predicted to have a rating of 5.95.

There is an interesting 538 podcast here about a company that predicts film earnings. He mentions the correlation between film quality and earnings and film quality. This whole topic is an interesting challenge for prediction.

Stephen King is unique among authors in the number and variety of adaptations his works have gone through. So he is possibly the only author this could be even tried with. I am really looking forward to 11.22.63 and the Talisman now. And if Gerald's Game beats the predicted IMDB score that is a bonus.


mydata = read.csv("King.csv")  
attach(mydata)     # attach the data frame 
king.lm = lm(imdb ~ good.doubled)

lm(formula = imdb ~ good.doubled)

 (Intercept)  good.doubled  
      -5.821         1.628  

upcoming = read.csv("upcoming.csv")  
predict(king.lm, upcoming, interval="predict")

> predict(king.lm, upcoming, interval="predict")

Title,Publication date,Pages,imdb,goodreads,good doubled,clr
Salem's Lot,17/10/1975,439,6.8,3.97,7.94,1
The Shining,28/01/1977,447,8.4,4.12,8.24,1
The Stand,Sep-78,823,7.3,4.32,8.64,1
The Dead Zone,Aug-79,428,7.3,3.88,7.76,1
The Running Man,May-82,219,6.6,3.74,7.48,1
Pet Sematary,14/11/1983,374,6.6,3.86,7.72,1
The Tommyknockers,10/11/1987,558,5.4,3.42,6.84,1
The Dark Half,20/10/1989,431,5.9,3.71,7.42,1
Needful Things,Oct-91,690,6.2,3.84,7.68,1
Dolores Claiborne,Nov-92,305,7.4,3.76,7.52,1
The Green Mile,March–August 1996,400,8.5,4.39,8.78,1
Bag of Bones,22/09/1998,529,5.8,3.84,7.68,1
Under the Dome,10/11/2009,1074,6.8,3.89,7.78,1
Shawshank Redemption,10/11/2009,181,9.3,4.51,9.02,1
Stand by me,10/11/2009,80,8.1,4.25,8.5,1
The Mist,10/11/2009,230,7.2,3.88,7.76,1
The Langoliers,10/11/2009,230,6.1,3.71,7.42,1
Apt Pupil,1983,179,6.7,3.8,7.7,1
Hearts in Atlantis,2000,640,6.9,3.77,7.54,1
The Talisman,na,na,7.5,4.1, 8.2,2
Rose Madder,na,na,5.95,3.61, 7.22,2
Lisey's Story,na,na,5.95,3.61, 7.22,2
Mr. Mercedes,na,na,6.79,3.87, 7.74,2
Gerald's Game,na,na,5.37,3.43, 6.86,2
Cell,na,na,5.95,3.61, 7.22,2
11.22.63,na,na,8.05,4.26, 8.52,2
The Dark Tower,na,na,7.2,4,8,2

mydata = read.csv("King.csv")
p1 <- ggplot(mydata, aes(x=good.doubled, y=imdb)) +
    geom_point(colour = factor(clr),shape=1,size=2) +    # Use hollow circles
p1 <- p1 + ylab("IMDB Ratings")  
p1 <- p1 + xlab("GoodReads Ratings")  
p1 <- p1 + ggtitle("Upcoming Stephen King Adaptations")
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 6.97, y = 5.26, label = "The Tommyknockers", size=3, colour="blue3")  
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 7.85, y = 7.42, label = "Carrie", size=3, colour="blue3") 
#Salem's Lot,17/10/1975,439,6.8,3.97,7.94,1
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x =8.0 , y =6.9, label = "Salem's Lot", size=3, colour="blue3") 
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 7.8, y = 6.5, label = "Pet Sematary", size=3, colour="blue3") 
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 8.34, y = 8.51, label = "The Shining", size=3, colour="blue3") 
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 8.62, y = 8.2, label = "Stand By Me", size=3, colour="blue")
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 8.9, y = 8.4, label = "The Green Mile", size=3, colour="blue3") 
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 9.0, y = 9.09, label = "Shawshank\nRedemption" , size=3, colour="blue3") 
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 8.75, y = 7.3, label = "The Stand", size=3, colour="blue3") 
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 8.27, y = 6.85 , label = "It", size=3, colour="blue3") 
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 8.19, y = 7.74, label = "Misery", size=3, colour="blue3") 
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 8.05, y = 6.7, label = "Under the Dome", size=3, colour="blue3") 
#Under the Dome,10/11/2009,1074,6.8,3.89,7.78,1
p1 <- p1 + annotate("segment", x = 7.9, xend = 7.79, y = 6.7, yend = 6.8, colour = "blue3") 
#Dolores Claiborne,Nov-92,305,7.4,3.76,7.52,1
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 7.5, y = 7.3, label = "Dolores Claiborne", size=3, colour="blue3") 
#The Dark Half,20/10/1989,431,5.9,3.71,7.42,1
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 7.5, y = 5.81, label = "The Dark Half", size=3, colour="blue3")
#Bag of Bones,22/09/1998,529,5.8,3.84,7.68,1
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 7.78, y = 5.7, label = "Bag of Bones", size=3, colour="blue3")
#The Dead Zone,Aug-79,428,7.3,3.88,7.76,1
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 7.5, y = 7.72, label = "The Dead Zone", size=3, colour="blue3")
p1 <- p1 + annotate("segment", x = 7.76, xend = 7.5, y = 7.33, yend = 7.66, colour = "blue3") 
#The Mist,10/11/2009,230,7.2,3.88,7.76,1
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 7.76, y = 7.1, label = "The Mist", size=3, colour="blue3")
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 7.71, y = 6, label = "Firestarter", size=3, colour="blue3")
#The Langoliers,10/11/2009,230,6.1,3.71,7.42,1
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 7.56, y = 6.11, label = "The Langoliers", size=3, colour="blue3")
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 7.23, y = 6.1, label = "Cujo", size=3, colour="blue3")
#The Running Man,May-82,219,6.6,3.74,7.48,1
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 7.48, y = 6.7, label = "The Running Man", size=3, colour="blue3")
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 7.38, y = 6.5, label = "Christine", size=3, colour="blue3")
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 7.25, y = 5.6, label = "Thinner", size=3, colour="blue3")
#Needful Things,Oct-91,690,6.2,3.84,7.68,1
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 7.83, y = 6.2, label = "Needful Things", size=3, colour="blue3")
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 7.2, y = 5.5, label = "Dreamcatcher", size=3, colour="blue3")
#The Talisman,na,na,7.52,4.1, 8.2,2
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 8.36, y = 7.52, label = "The Talisman", size=3, colour="red3")
#Rose Madder,na,na,5.93,3.61, 7.22,2
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 7.07, y = 5.93, label = "Rose Madder", size=3, colour="red3")
#Lisey's Story,na,na,5.93,3.61, 7.22,2
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 7.07, y = 6.05, label = "Lisey's Story", size=3, colour="red3")
#Mr. Mercedes,na,na,6.78,3.87, 7.74,2
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 7.60, y = 6.81, label = "Mr. Mercedes", size=3, colour="red3")
#Gerald's Game,na,na,5.34,3.43, 6.86,2
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 7.03, y = 5.36, label = "Gerald's Game", size=3, colour="red3")
#Cell,na,na,5.93,3.61, 7.22,2
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 7.28, y = 5.92, label = "Cell", size=3, colour="red3")
#11.22.63,na,na,8.05,4.26, 8.52,2
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 8.63, y = 8.05, label = "11.22.63", size=3, colour="red3")
#The Dark Tower,na,na,7.2,4,8,2
p1 <- p1 + annotate("text", x = 8.16, y = 7.2, label = "The Dark Tower", size=3, colour="red3")
p1 <- p1 + ylab("IMDB Ratings")  
p1 <- p1 + xlab("GoodReads Ratings")
ggsave("plot.png", width=10, height=10, dpi=100)

Friday, November 13, 2015

Do Stephen King's Better Books Make Better Films?

My last post (and data) got a bit popular on reddit. Some people noticed that Stephen King films ratings and the books ratings seemed highly correlated.

I think Max is right on this. So I made a graph showing how movie and book ratings are correlated

Now the actual correlation figure is

 cor(good.doubled, imdb, use="complete")
[1] [1] 0.8766 so it looks like highly rated King books make highly rated films

It could be that a good film makes people read and rate highly a book. But my basic conclusion is Stephen King's highly rated books make higher rated films

Appendix: Code for the Graph

mydata = read.csv("King.csv")
cor(good.doubled, imdb, use="complete")
p1 <- ggplot(mydata, aes(x=good.doubled, y=imdb)) +
    geom_point(shape=1) +    # Use hollow circles
    geom_smooth(method=lm,   # Add linear regression line
                se=FALSE)    # Don't add shaded confidence region
p1 <- p1 + ylab("IMDB Ratings")  
p1 <- p1 + xlab("GoodReads Ratings *2")  
p1 <- p1 + ggtitle("Stephen King: Books vs. Movies Correlation")
p1 <- p1 + geom_text(aes(label=ifelse(good.doubled>0,as.character(Title),'')),hjust=0,just=0,size=2, position = "jitter")

Other Correlations I changed the publication data column into a column of Years since 1974.

 cor(good.doubled, Years, use="complete")
[1] -0.1879052 Not a strong correlation about Kings adapted books get better or worse since he started
> cor(good.doubled, Pages, use="complete")
[1] -0.02715659 no relationship between the length of a book and it being rated highly or lowly.
> cor(Years, Pages, use="complete")
[1] 0.482048 King's adapted books may be getting a bit longer over time